In fiscal year 2016, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), which will enroll one million or more participants in a national research effort designed to find better ways to prevent and treat disease based on lifestyle, environment, and genetics. Cancer is a major focus of the PMI, given the promise of more effective tailored treatments and prevention modalities. A portion of the funds allocated for the PMI are dedicated to the National Cancer Institute’s efforts in cancer genomics, and the University of Chicago Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center is playing a key role through the All of Us Research Program, a key element of the PMI. The All of Us leadership hopes to extend precision medicine for prevention and treatment of all dis- eases by building a diverse national research cohort that will be followed for decades. Cohort studies provide a unique opportunity for scientists to follow a large group of people over an extended period of time to see how exposure—environment, occupa- tion, city of residence, for example—may relate to incidence of chronic diseases such as cancer. The University of Chicago is working alongside Northwestern University, University of Illinois at Chicago, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital, and the Alliance of Chicago Community Health Services LLC as members of the Illinois Precision Medicine Consortium (IPMC), which will help recruit 150,000 All of Us participants. The Comprehensive Cancer Center has been committed to this area of research for many years by supporting the development of longitudinal cohorts in Chicago that also have the scientific capacity to promote precision health and medicine. “We are hoping to leverage our extensive experi- ence engaging diverse research participants in UChicago projects to enhance minority repre- sentation in All of Us and boost the ability of the program to make breakthroughs relevant to our patient population,” said Brisa Aschebrook-Kilfoy, PhD, research assistant professor of public health sciences and a key investigator. Aschebrook-Kilfoy helps run the Comprehensive Cancer Center’s Chicago Multiethnic Prevention and Surveillance Study (COMPASS), which aims to understand disparities in disease incidence and mortality in Chicago’s population where there are higher rates of cancer and chronic diseases than in other parts of the United States. Through the efforts of a multidisciplinary team, COMPASS investigators plan to recruit 100,000 Chicago residents to study the lifestyle, environ- mental, and genetic factors that impact health and chronic diseases, with an emphasis on cancer. The study was launched in 2013, and thus far close to 4,000 diverse residents have enrolled in the cohort. Eligible participants complete an in-depth inter- view, provide blood, urine, and saliva samples for scientific analysis, and agree to complete follow-up questionnaires every two to three years. “Through extensive community engagement efforts, diversity and disparities trainings, and hands-on learning experiences, our team in the Cohort Studies: COMPASS and All of Us Projects 2 PATHWAYS TO DISCOVERY FALL 2017